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Dispatch Furnace Model 14410
  Dispatch system included features:
  • Zone Element Monitoring Included
  • Uninterruptible Power Source Included
  • 36" Heated Oxidation Chamber Included
  • Spare Parts Kit Included
  • Low Oxygen Furnace Modification Included
  • Steam Generator Included
  • Ultrasonic Belt Cleaner Included
  • Analog Belt Synchronization


This specification will outline the key requirements and capabilities of the DF-14410-NS Diffusion Furnace. This system is designed to support the research and development needs of those customers that recognize the need to continuously improve their manufacturing process results. It enables these thought leaders to optimize process parameters, validate new concepts and transfer those results directly to their full scale diffusion furnace with added confidence and reduced risk. The DF Series Diffusion Furnaces are designed to maximize the manufacturing yield and solar cell efficiency of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline solar cells.


The DF-14410-NS Diffusion Furnace is manufactured, tested, delivered, installed and optimized with necessary capabilities to diffuse dopant source to create a highly homogenous and repeatable emitter. This section provides a high-level description of the tools key subsystems and sections.

2.1 Load Table
The load station is designed to enable a direct connection to the coating equipment that the customer provides. The detailed physical specification and support will be defined during the project implementation phase to enable maximum throughput and line communication.

2.2 Diffusion Furnace
The diffusion furnace consists of infrared thermal ramp and dwell zones, oxidation zones, controlled rapid cooling, appropriate exhausting and monitoring equipments and a metal belt material handling system.

2.3 Unload Station
The unload station is designed to enable a direct connection to the solar cell manufacturing lines' glass etching/cleaning process tool or to an automated buffering and robotic unloading station. The detailed physical specification and support will be defined during the project implementation phase to enable maximum throughput and communication.

2.4 Process Control System
The process control system consists of tool mounted computer running the Despatch System Software. The system includes multilevel user support, recipe administration, process monitoring, data collection/storage, Alert/Alarm monitoring, closed loop control on select process parameters and an industry leading Graphical User Interface.


Furnace Load Station 18 in (45.7 cm)  
Entrance Baffle/Entrance Exhaust 18 in (45.7 cm)  
Heat Zone 1 9 in (22.8 cm) Full Power Ramp Zone
Heat Zone 2 9 in (22.8 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 3 9 in (22.8 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 4 9 in (45.7 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 5 18 in (45.7 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 6 36 in (91.5 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 7 18 in (45.7 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 8 18 in (45.7 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 9 9 in (22.8 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Heat Zone 10 9 in (22.8 cm) Half Power Dwell Zone
Exit Baffle/Exit Exhaust 12 in (34.3 cm)  
Open Area 3 in (7.6cm)  
Entrance Baffle/Entrance Exhaust 12 in (34.3 cm)  
Oxidation Zone 1 18 in (45.7 cm)  
Oxidation Zone 2 18 in (45.7 cm)  
Exit Baffle /Exit Exh. 12 in (45.7 cm)  
Open Area 6 in (15.2 cm)  
Entrance Baffle/Entrance Exhaust 12 in (34.3 cm)  
Water Cooling Section 36 in (91.4 cm)  
Exit Baffle 12 in (30.4 cm)  
Furnace Unload Station 18 in (45.7 cm)  
Frame Allowance 3 in. (7.62 cm)  
TOTAL 342 in. (869 cm) 28.5 ft (8.69m)

4.1 Diffusion Furnace
4.1.1 The maximum operating temperature of the furnace is 1000°C. Cross belt temperature uniformity and repeatability is ±2 °C while operating at a steady state temperature and moderate belt speed. This specification may be exceeded between zones operating at very high temperature differential or at high rates of temperature rise that may exceed the speed of the profiling instrument time samples.

4.1.2 The chamber construction, gas controls, and exhaust are designed to control in-process atmosphere by maintaining equilibrium between input, exhaust and leakage.

4.1.3The furnace will util= ize infrared heating technology enabling multiple zone process profiles configurable to the specific needs of the targeted process. Edge heaters will also be provided to ensure that the full width of the chamber is uniform in temperature.

4.1.4 The baffle sections are housed inside a welded aluminum shell lined with ceramic fiber board insulation. A gas curtain (gases are defined in section 6.3) is generated by introducing the gases above the belt, through sparge tubes. These gases, and a series of four equally spaced hanging baffle gates, with 0.75 inch clearance from the belt, serve to purge the entrance baffle and prevent ambient air from entering the furnace section. A 2" diameter, venturi assisted exhaust stack (located between the exist end of the entrance baffle and the beginning of zone 1) draws heated gases from the furnace section. A removable condensate collection tray is also provided at the base of the exhaust stack.

4.1.5 An electric linear actuated, bottom drop down design is provided for quick and easy access to the interior furnace chamber for serviceability and maintenance.

4.1.6 The infrared heating sections are encased in a heavy walled aluminum outer shell. Inside the aluminum casing, a 3" thick porous alumina-silicate muffle is provided. A small open containment area is embedded in the top and bottom layers of the porous ceramic muffle. This open containment area serves as a process gas plenum. Compressed process gas is introduced into the plenum area where it is pressurized and forced to permeate through the top and bottom porous muffle walls. The process gas is preheated to the zone temperature as it passes through the hot muffle walls. The benefits of this gas introduction technique are:

  • Passive pre-heating of process gas (no inline gas heaters required)
  • Enhanced temperature uniformity
  • Chamber cleanliness; positive pressure from the top and bottom interior chamber walls eliminates build up of product burn-out material= s on to the chamber walls and heating lamps.
  • High dilution purge of the process chamber; i.e. 2 atmosphere changes per minute.
4.1.7 Flexibility; rapid heat up and cool down; ambient temperature to 900°C and stabilized in <15 minutes. 900°C to 400°C in <20 minutes. An insulated transition tunnel, equipped with a 2" diameter venturi assist exhaust stack, is provided to isolate the heating section from the cold wall, cooling section. This section is 18 inches in length. The construction of the transition tunnel is similar to the entrance and exit baffles. The entrance baffle, transition tunnel and exit baffle are included in the linear activated bottom drop down design for quick and easy accessibility. A gas curtain is generated by introducing the gasses above the belt through sparge tubes.

4.1.8 The short open area between the heating chamber and oxidation section serves as a pressure relief to prevent steam from entering the heating chamber. This section is 3 inch (7.6 cm) in length.

4.1.9 Oxidation zones are encased in a heavy walled aluminum outer shell. Inside the aluminum casing, a 3" thick porous alumina-silicate muffle is provided to minimize heat loss to surroundings. Steam from steam generator will be introduced to the chamber directly through sparger tubes and heated inside the chamber to desired temperature range of 700 - 900 °C. Entrance/ Exit Baffles and Exhausts are provided at both ends of the section to prevent steam from entering the ambient.

4.1.10 The water cooled (rapid cool) section is constructed of formed and welded aluminum and consists of two 18 inch long cooling modules. This section is un-insulated so that it loses heat rapidly. Cooling water channels are machined into the top and bottom cold walls of the module. The lower half of the water cooling section is also part of the linear actuator drop down design for quick and easy access to the chamber interior for serviceability and maintenance. This design has a higher heat transfer rate when compared to other water cooling jacket designs using clamp on water coils at the exterior top and bottom cold wall surfaces only.

4.1.11 The water cooling sy= stem will include the following:

  • A manual shut off valve at the inlet location.
  • A pressure regulator control valve with gauge for setting the inlet water pressure to an appropriate and constant level.
  • An inlet coarse filter.
  • A system pressure relief.
  • A temperature indication at the input and output at the cooling water system.
4.1.12 An exit baffle that is equipped with a gas curtain is mounted to the water cooling tunnel. This baffle section is 12 inches in length and isolates the cold wall cooling tunnel from open atmosphere.

4.3 Wafer Transport System
4.3.1 Transport Speed: 2 - 20 in/min (5 - 51 cm/min) ± 0.5%
4.3.2Wafer Supported: 4 in (100mm) 5 in (125 mm) 6 in (156 mm)
4.3.3 Furnace Transport: Wafer transport in the infrared diffusion furnace shall be a metal belt suitable for the high temperature environment. Belt Width: 10 in. (25.4 cm) Belt Height: 38.5 in ± 1.5 in (97.8 cm ± 3.8 cm) Product Clearance: 2.0 in (5.08cm) Conveyor Belt Material: Nichrome V, balance spiral open weave belt. The spiral wound on a .75" pitch of belt width and 22 spirals per foot of belt length. A belt tensioner will be provided for regulated tensioning of the belt. Belt Supports: Solid optically clear quartz rods are used throughout the heating and cooling chambers. In the heating section, the quartz rod belt supports are positioned in a diagonal pattern to minimize belt wear. This belt support design also eliminates shadowing effects of the product being processed. In the cooling section, the quartz rods are again positioned in the diagonal pattern. On the lower belt return path, a series of idler rollers are used to minimize friction.

4.4 Operational Process
The tool will be equipped with an over-temperature limit to shut down the heater in the event of an over-temperature condition. 4.5 Finish
All exposed parts (exclusive of stainless steel or plastic materials) will be painted with corrosion resistant paint. Paint color to be Despatch Industries specification unless otherwise specified prior to order placement. The standard color is Federal Standard #595B, a base gray color. 4.6 Support Framework
The tool will utilize welded rectangular steel tubing as its rigid support framework. 4.7 Cabinet Enclosure: The entire framework will be enclosed using removable panels for easy access. Access panels will be latched and unlatched from the frame using quarter turn captive fasteners. Electrical interlock switches will be provided for access panels where high voltage wiring and components are present. Exterior cabinet temperat= ure will not exceed 35 °C (exclusive of process exhaust stacks) providing that the facility ambient temperature is ?25°C.


5.1 Dimensions/Weight (approximate)
5.1.1 Overall Size: 342" (868 cm) long by 61.5" (156 cm) wide by 72" (183 cm) high.
5.1.2 Weight: Approximately Furnace section 4500 pounds (2042 kg)
5.2 Electrical Specifications
5.2.1 Electrical Service: 480 volts, 3-phase, 50 hertz. (4-wire with ground).
5.2.2 Connected load amperage: To be determined.
5.2.3 The electrical system will meet the following U.S. and European electrical codes:
NFPA 70: "The National Electrical Code" NFPA 79: "Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery" CE compliance to Machinery Directive Annex 1, 89/392/EEC and Safety of Machinery - Electrical Equipment of Machines; Part 1-EN60204-1.
5.2.4 Electronics enclosure: All major electronics will be housed in a NEMA enclosure. The access door will be interlocked to shut down high voltage when opened. The interlock switch will be equipped with a bypass feature for troubleshooting electronics.
5.3 Process Gas Requirement
5.3.1 Volume: Nominal: 900-1000SCFH, Max. Input:1800 SCFH
5.3.2 Recommended Pressure: Regulated to: 80 psi (550 kPa).
5.3.3 The furnace main gas supply system will include the following: A manual shut-off valve at the gas inlet location. A pressure regulator control valve with gauge for setting the inlet pressure to an appropriate and constant level. A non return check valve at the gas inlet location. A manifold for distributing the gasses to the inlets of the furnace.

5.4 Water Requirements
5.4.1 PH Level: 7.2 - 7.6
5.4.2 Water: 16 - 18°C inlet
5.4.3 Flow: 3-10 GPM (11-38 lpm)
5.4.4 Pressure: 120 psi maximum (830 kPa)

5.5 Exhaust Requirements (approximate)
5.5.1 Process exhaust (typical): 31-47 scfm
5.5.2 Cabinet exhaust (CCE) 1000 cfm
5.5.3 Dryer exhaust (DE): 60-120 cfm

5.6 DI Water Requirements

5.6.1 Consumption: To be determined based on what moisture content is to be achieved in the oxidation zone.


The system is controlled by an Industrial PC connected to a remote slave I/O subsystem. The PC runs a Microsoft Windows operating system and a custom Despatch furnace control application. The custom Despatch control application provides a Graphica= l User Interface (GUI) at the PC console for all furnace operator functions, and controls and monitors all process functions through the remote slave I/O subsystem. The control application supports process data logging and alarm functions. Conveyor speed and heat zone temperatures are precisely regulated by control application PID loops, which control the conveyor's variable motor speed drives, and each heat zone's control SCR's, according to user-defined speed and temperature set point recipes.

6.1 Program security is provided by passwords, allowing different levels of GUI user access for recipe creation, selection, and process initiation and control. System configuration, such as passwords and alarm settings, process recipes, and process data log files are stored on the PC hard drive. Log files can be retrieved via a 1GB Flash Drive using a Panel Mounted USB port.
6.2 Significant Control System specifications: Speed tolerance: +/- 0.5% of set point Time to speed: < 60 seconds Temperature Control Range: 100 - 1000 °C Displayed Temperature Control Tolerance: +/- 1°C of set point Heat Up Time to Temperature: typically < 25 minutes
6.3 Significant Alarm levels:
  • Loss of conveyor drive
  • Conveyor speed control failure
  • High heat zone temperature (for each zone)
  • Heat zone lamp/control system failure for each zone (optional)
  • Heat zone temperature control failure for each zone
6.4 Data logging parameters:
  • Log includes process set points, actual values, and PID control values for conveyor and heat zones
  • Retrievable into Spreadsheet Format.
6.5 Atmosphere control is accomplished with manually adjustable flow meters.


7.1 Alarms
7.2 Sample Ports
This feature includes sample ports at selected points in the process chamber which can be used for monitoring the process atmosphere. There will be a total of five ports as sample ports through the furnace. These port locations will be used for oxygen monitoring.
7.3 Light tower: provides a three stage alarm status light tower.
7.3.1 Red Indicator: Alarm Condition
7.3.2Yellow Indicator: Process Not Ready, No Alarms
7.3.3 Green Indicator: Process Ready, No Alarms
7.4 Over Temperature Protection: Provides redundant over temperature protection in all zones.


8.1 Element Failure Monitor: This feature provides electronic circuitry and software to sense failed heating elements and the failed elements zone location.
8.2 Ultrasonic Belt Cleaner: This feature adds an ultrasonic tank and timer system to provide automatic cleaning and drying of the belt. This option requires De-ionized (DI) water to be plumbed to the ultrasonic tank. An automated fill and drain cycle is provided. Volume of DI water is approximately 3 cubic feet.
8.3 Furnace Start-up Assistance/Training and Optimization Support: Once all facilities drops have been made to the furnace, Despatch will provide the services of service personnel for five (5) days on site to perform the following:
8.3.1 Review the installation to ensure proper re-assembly, electrical= hook-up, water piping Also review that the furnace is level and the quartz rods and belt have been installed properly.
8.3.2 Start up of the furnace and test for all operational parameters to ensure proper operation. Includes operation of the belt to ensure proper tracking.
8.3.3 Training of operators on the features/function of the furnace. Training will also include proper furnace maintenance and trouble shooting.
8.3.4 Optimization is included to maximize performance of the furnace. This may include wafer testing and optimizing gas flow rates and exhaust as well as wafer doping.
8.4 Uninterruptible Power Supply: Add an Uninterruptible power source which keeps the belt, cabinet fans and control system operational for 15 minutes following a power outage. This minimizes the wear and tear on the belt and components in the electrical compartment when power is lost.
8.5 Spare Parts Kit: This kit includes components both electrical and mechanical that are considered critical to the operation of the equipment.
8.6 Low Oxygen Furnace Modification: Control the oxygen content within the working chamber of the furnace from approaching the level of 100 ppm(part per million). The oxygen achievable is dependent on the purity of the gaseous Nitrogen utilized.
8.7 Steam Generator: Steam generator will provide pressurized steam into the chamber of oxidation zones to provide sufficient moisture content and flow rate per furnace design.
8.8 Analog Belt Synchronization Signal: This option provides an analog output card that will generate a clean analog signal of the dryer conveyor speed for synchronization of up and down stream conveyors. The analog card provides a linear signal of 4-20 mA matching the furnace belt speeds of 2-20 IPM (5.1 - 50.6 cm/min).
Novastar 100 hc Horizontal Convection Furnace/Oven CALL FOR PRICE
  • Model 100 hc
  • 18" wide conveyor, 220vac, 50/60hz, 70a
  • 50" heated tunnel length
  • Overall Dimensions: 94"x43"x50"
With the patented Horizontal Convection, air is circulated horizontally in one direction above the conveyor and in one opposite direction below the conveyor. This circular air current or "cyclone" around the conveyor or your actual part produces extremely uniform temperature profiles across the conveyor and your part.

Each of the vertical heating zones is programmable through the controller which stores up to 100 recipes. The oven includes a real time temperature profiler port. When a thermocouple is attached to a thermocouple board, the actual board level temperature profile is graphically displayed as the board travels through the oven. The conveyor speed, heating elements, cyclone generators and cooling fans are all programmable. The oven also features SPC fault monitoring and reporting, battery back up and a seven day timer for automatic machine start up.